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What is your maximum heart rate, when do you change from aerobic to anaerobic energy metabolism, what is your recovery heart rate zone, how long should you stay in one particular heart rate zone? But do we really understand why and how the body works and metabolizes fuels during exercise to achieve this?


Everyone knows the benefits of cardiovascular training. The surgeon general recommends three times a week for at least twenty minutes, for each workout, in order to maintain good cardiovascular fitness.


Energy Systems Development is a scientific approach to cardiovascular training. A great example is a baseball pitcher. The classic cardio prescription has been long runs to improve endurance. But when you think about the energy requirements, a pitcher does one repetition as hard as they can but for multiple times (i.e. 50-70 pitches per game). So a better approach to a conditioning program would be multiple sets of maximal effort, explosive movements to mimic the energy usage for that sport (i.e. 5-yd sprint for multiple reps., broad jumps, medicine ball throws, pool workouts, push presses, vertical jumps). These types of workouts are called Energy System Development (ESD) workouts and they should be total body movements as used in pitchin